Friday, May 13, 2016

ACP Review

1st Semester review Powerpoint Here                                               Strange Animals        Other Strange Animals
Links                                                                                  Project Presentation Options
Remember this song about Cells?
Play this Jeopardy Review Game

Use this study format to keep track of what you know.

Name the Parts of an Animal, Plant or Bacteria Cell Game

The beginning... the microscope
Robert Hooke was the first to observe tree cork and call them CELLS.

Then came cell theory....
Scheiden, Shwann and Virchow proposed cell theory.
1. All living things are made of one or more cells.
2. The cell is smallest unit of a living thing.
3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

Some scientist believed living organisms develop from nonliving matter.
Maggots did not grow from the closed jar. This experiment disproved spontaneous generation.

The hierarchy of all living things.
Cells, tissue, organ, organ system, organism.

Cells are made of organelles. or the parts of a cell.
Mitochondria (the powerhouse) makes the energy (ATP) for the cell.
Cytoplasm is the jelly like substance that holds the organelles in place
The Cell membrane is a semi-permeable membrane that allows nutrients and waste in and out of the cell.

Plants cells have a hard outer covering called the cell wall that gives a plant is shape

The nucleus is the brain of the cell.
It contains the genetic information or DNA.
Humans have 46 chromosomes.
Chromosomes are made of many genes.
Genes are made of sections of DNA

Cells combine to make tissue
Tissue combine to make organs
Both plants and animals have organs and organ systems.
The organs of a plant are leaves, xylem and phloem. The root system is and organ system that deliver nutrients.

How does the human body get nutrients?

Nutrients and waste move in and out of cells by diffusion.

Nutrients move into the blood stream by diffusion in the small intestine.
Water moves into the blood stream by diffusion in the large intestine.
Osmosis is the movement of water through a cell's semi-permeable membrane. 
The amount of water and nutrients inside and outside the cell determines the flow of water through the membrane. 

The Digestive system (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids) and the Respiratory system (oxygen and CO2) get nutrients and give them to the Circulatory system (diffusion) to carry to all the cells.
People need energy and we gain that energy by consuming food.
Our digestive system has the function of turning raw materials
into the chemicals our body needs.
Physical changes simply alter the appearance of something. For example, chewing breaks large food molecules into smaller ones. The tongue helps roll and push the food. Peristalsis is the muscular movement of digestive organs that moves food through the digestive system.  This is a physical change during digestion.
Chemical changes occur when the chemical make-up of the food particle is changed to create a new substance. During the digestive process,enzymes change food like carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nucleic acidsinto substances that can be absorbed by cells. Amylase in the mouth breaks down carbohydrates. Pepsin in the stomach breaks down proteins.
In the mouth both physical and chemical digestion occur.
Large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules during both changes so that cells can absorb and use for energy. Carbohydrates are broken down into sugars and used by the mitochondria during cellular respiration to make energy or ATP 

The Endocrine system is made of glands that release hormones toregulate body functions.
Cells reproduce through mitosis (body cells) and meiosis (sex cells).

Sexual reproduction (egg and sperms) produces off spring with shared genetic information. Asexual Reproduction (plant cuttings, starfish) produces offspring with equal and identical genetic information.

Work Equation video

The equation to solve work problems looks like this:

work = force x distance  or   W = F x d

  • The SI unit for force is newton (N).

    • The SI unit for distance is meter (m).
    • The SI unit for work is joule (J).

    Now let's look at the steps for calculating work.
    Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
    The net force on the rope in the top of Figure 7 is 0When the net force on an object is Nthe forces acting on it are balanced forces.

    If the forces acting on an object are balancedthe objectmotion does not changeWhen the net force acting on an object is not0the forces acting on the object are unbalanced forces.

    The forces acting on the rope in the bottom of Figure 7 areunbalanced