Monday, December 7, 2015

1st Semester Review

Follow the links on the right side of the blog to review concepts we have studied.

Marsh students use the following links to play games and complete interactive to study for your 1st semester exam.

Links to Study
Virtual Lab Density Practice      Virtual Lab 2 Density             Density  Practice    
Plate Tectonics Interactive        Virtual Lab Plate Tectonics        Plate Tectonic Game  
PLate Tectonic Game2         
Layers of the Earth                    Layers of the Earth Game       
Volcano Game                          Anatomy of an Earthquake Game           Earthquakes
3 Types of Rocks Practice                                The Rock Cycle Interactive
Element and Compound Practice                     
Compounds and Mixtures Interactive

Tuesday, December 1, 2015


Sandoval Students I have added Directions to Schoology, you can ask me questions through there too. I miss you, Make something cool with your knowledge today!

Click here for resources to create cartoons, presentations, powerpoints to show your knowledge of solar systems.

Links to Celestial Objects       How the Universe Works     International Space Station Live Stream

NASA and the Solar System            Orbit Simulator      Canadian Defense Minister on Aliens?

Space Games from Nasa     Gravity Game    ISS Space walk game   Planet Game   

Gravity Inside Einsteins Mind NOVA

Our Solar System
The words solar system refer to a star and all of the objects that travel around it -- planets, natural satellites such as our moon, asteroid belts, comets, and meteoroids. We now know there may be more than 5,000 planets orbiting other stars. Our solar system is part of a spiral galaxy known as the Milky Way. The sun, the center of our solar system, holds eight planets and countless smaller objects in its orbit.

Our solar system formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The four planets closest to the sun - MercuryVenusEarth, and Mars - are called the terrestrial planets because they have solid, rocky surfaces. 

Between Mars and Jupiter lies the Asteroid Belt. Asteroids are rocky, airless worlds that orbit our sun, but are too small to be called planets. Tens of thousands of these minor planets are gathered in the main asteroid belt, a vast doughnut-shaped ring between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids that pass close to Earth are called near-earth objects. Click here to learn more about asteroids.
Two of the outer planets beyond the orbit of Mars - Jupiter and Saturn - are known as gas giants.

The more distant Uranus and Neptune are called ice giants. 
The Planets
Mercury has a very weak atmosphere.
Venus has a thick atmosphere of mainly carbon dioxide. Similar in structure and size to Earth, Venus' thick, toxic atmosphere traps heat in a runaway greenhouse effect. A permanent layer of clouds traps heat, creating surface temperatures hot enough to melt lead. Glimpses below the clouds reveal volcanoes and deformed mountains. Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction of most planets.
Earth's atmosphere is primarily nitrogen and oxygen. 

Mars' carbon dioxide atmosphere is extremely thin. Explore Mars with Curiosity here.

NASA is developing the capabilities needed to send humans to an asteroid by 2025 and Mars in the 2030s . Engineers and scientists around the country are working hard to develop the technologies astronauts will use to one day live and work on Mars, and safely return home from the next giant leap for humanity. NASA also is a leader in a Global Exploration Roadmap, working with international partners and the U.S. commercial space industry on a coordinated expansion of human presence into the solar system, with human missions to the surface of Mars as the driving goal. Follow our progress at and
Jupiter and Saturn are composed mostly of hydrogen and helium.

Uranus and Neptune are composed mostly of water, ammonia, and methane, with icy mantles around their cores.

The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft visited the gas giants, and Voyager 2 flew by and imaged the ice giants.
Pluto is  a dwarf planet along with Ceres, Eris, Haumea, and Makemake. They have similar compositions and are solid with icy surfaces.
Two NASA spacecraft have are exploring dwarf planets - the Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 and the New Horizons mission reaches Pluto in that same year in July. After Pluto, New Horizons will explore deeper into the Kuiper Belt.
Between Mars and Jupiter lies the asteroid belt.

Galilean Moons of Jupiter

How do Moons effect our planets? Do you notice anything about Jupiter's moons compared to others?

Friday, November 27, 2015

Resources for 3rd 6 Weeks Project – free animations software. Used to create presentations.      Lightning Thief 

Bitstrips Create comic strips – (wallwisher) insert pictures, videos texts or links, used for notetaking, and projects. With many students accessing the program and sharing information and producing a product with it. – take any picture and make it talk, to spice up presentationsJ quick and easy! You can add image to presentation or powerpoint.

Google earth – View an image of StonStory Jumperehenge, Giza Pyramid, Chichen Itza, screenshot and use in presentations or create tours of the ring of fire, used for presentations. – timeline generator website, create a timeline for the creation of Stonehenge, Giza Pyramid, or Chichen Itza and add images.

Prezi - create online PowerPoint

Story Jumper - online book maker! – website creator or create games, to show your knowledge of things we have learned this semester.

Screencastomatic  -  create videos that work with presentations.

Project Guidelines - Due December 14, 2015
Do you want to build a monument that will last for 1,000's of years? What would it look like? Where would you build it? What materials would you use? What would you want to future to know?

Look at monuments that have lasted like Stonehenge, Giza Pyramids, Chichen Itza, Easter Island, what can you learn to help you with your monument?

Sunday, November 15, 2015

Motion and Speed

Practice 1st Semester Lesson Objectives

Motion & Speed

Things to know....
Speed:  Distance divided by time. SI unit for speed is meters per second (mps)
VelocitySpeed with a direction. Example: 35mph is speed. 35 mph north is velocity.Acceleration:  A change in direction, speeding up, or slowing down.Motion: A change in position. When an object moves from one spot to another.Reference Point: Something that appears to be stationary, that is used to determine motion. 

  • The motion of an object can be described by its position, direction of motion and speed.
  • An unbalanced force acting on an object changes its speed and/or direction of motion.
  • Objects moving in circles must experience force acting toward the center.

Source of image: 
Motion: a change in position, measured by distance and time
Source of images:

  • An object is said to be in motion when its position changes in relation to a reference point
  • An object’s motion can be described and represented graphically according to its position, direction of motion, and speed
  • Motion of objects can be represented on a distance vs. time line graph, with distance traveled as the vertical (“y”) axis and time as the horizontal (“x”) axis.
  • The steepness and slant of the motion line vary depending on the speed and direction of the moving objects.
  • A straight horizontal line indicates an object at rest

Reference point: the point from which movement is determined.

A reference point can be any object or location.  It can be moving or stationary (unmoving).  The motion of another object can be compared to the reference point to determine whether the object is moving relative (moving toward, away from, or neither) to the reference point.

In the image, if the tree is the reference point, the car is moving away from from the reference point as it goes from position 1 to position 2.

Source of images:
  • An object to compare a moving object to
  • To measure movement, some point must be considered as nonmoving
  • Earth is the most common frame of reference

Speed: the distance traveled by a moving object per unit of time.
  • To calculate speed, use the equation 
 Speed = distance / time
  • Speed only gives distance and time.
  • Speed describes the change in an object’s position over a period of time, and is measured in units such as meters per second or miles per hour

Average speed: the speed of moving objects is not always constant:

Average speed = total distance / total time
  • Average speed takes into account the different speeds at which an object moves over a period of time
  • Average speed is calculated by dividing the total distance traveled by the change in time, ignoring any changes in motion or direction during its travel

Velocity: speed in a given direction.
  • Velocity gives distance, time, and the direction of travel

Graphing Speed

Relative MotionSee how motion is observed by the person observing it.

Distance Time Graph ActivityInteractive web page that lets you create your own distance-time graph by flying a space ship

Distance Time Graph Partner ActivityFor 2 students - interactive web page that lets one person create the graph and the second person attempts to recreate the same graph by moving a second spaceship across the screen

Need for SpeedSpeed, Direction, and Velocity with a car

Despicable Me - Vector Clip

Tuesday, November 10, 2015


What are forces?  BrainPop Quiz


Why is one side of the ball flat?
Visuals Unlimited/Corbis
ballsuch as this tennis ballis usually roundIts shape lets it roll farther and travelfarther in the airWhat could cause part of ball to become flat like this oneDoes thesame thing happen when baseball hits batOr when golf club hits golf ball?
What do typing on computerlifting bikeand putting on sweater have in common?They all involve an interaction between you and another objectYou push on the keysYoupush or pull on the bikeYou pull on the sweaterpush or pull on an object is a force.
Forces affect motion of everyday lifeSeedlings emerging through soil or growing towardsthe sun are examples of how objects around us are affected by forces.  You are sitting on Earth due to very powerful force - gravity!
force has both size and directionIn Figure 1, the length of the arrow represents the sizeof the forceThe direction in which the arrow points represents the direction of the force.The unit of force is the newton (N). It takes about of force to lift can of soda.
There are two ways force can affect an objectforce can change an objectspeedIt also can change the direction in which the object is movingIn other wordsforce can cause acceleration

that acceleration is change in an objectvelocity, its speed and/or its direction in given timeWhen you apply force to tennis ballsuch as the one shown in the picture abovethe force first stops the motion of the ballThe force then causes the ball to accelerate in the opposite directionchanging both its speed and direction.
1. Reading CheckIn what ways can forces affect objects?

(t) Anthony-Masterson/Getty Images, (b)Per Breiehagen/Getty Images
Figure 1 The arrows show forces with very different sizes acting in opposite directions.

Types of Forces
Some forces are easy to recognizeYou can see hammer applies force as it hits nailOther forces seem to act on objects without touching them

For example what force causes your ice cream to fall toward the ground if it slips out of the cone?


top left image of Figure 2 shows baker pushing his hand into doughcausing the top of the dough to accelerate downwardYou can see the bakerhand and the dough come into contact with each other
contact Force is push or pull applied by one object to another object that is touching itContact forces also are called mechanicaforcesThe top half of Figure 2 also shows other types of contact forces.growing seedling is an example of an applied force.  As the plant pushes on the seed wallsthe walls begin to crack and the seedling emerges from the seed pod

(tl) Visual Cuisines/Getty Images, (tc) Photodisc/Alamy, (tr) Floresco Productions/Corbis, (bl) Mark Spowart/Alamy, (bc) sciencephotos/Alamy, (br) Steve Casimiro/Getty Images
Figure 2 The pictures in the top row show examples of various types of contact forcesThe ones in the bottom row show examples of several types of non-contact forces.

Noncontact Forces
The bottom left image of Figure 2 shows girlhair being pulled toward the slide even though it isntouching the slideforce that pushes or pulls an object without touching it is a noncontact force. The force that pulls the girlhair is an electricforceThe bottom half of Figure 2 shows other noncontact forcessuch as magnetismand gravity.

Noncontact forces affect all motion in everyday life.  For exampleplant growing in soil is affected by gravity.  The root system of plant grows toward gravityThe response of plant to gravity is called geotropism.

 Key Concept CheckWhat is the difference between the way contact andnoncontact forces affect objects?
 MiniLabHow does friction affect an objectmotion?

Air resistance is force that opposes the motion of an object moving through air.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source
1. Read and complete lab safety form.
2. Make model parachute from tissue paperstringtape, and metal washer.
3. Use meterstick or metric tape measure to measure heights of 123and meters on nearby wallMark them with tape.
4. Drop the parachute from the 4markYour partner should start stopwatch assoon as you drop the parachute and should stop the stopwatch when the washer passes the 3- markRepeat this step three more times stopping the stopwatch at the 2- markthe 1- markand the groundRecord the times in your ScienceJournal.
5. Remove the washer from the parachuteMeasure and record the time for the     washer to fall from the 4-mark to the floor without the parachute.

Think About This
1. Graph the motion of the parachute on distance-time graph.
HintPlace time onthe x-axis and distance on the y-axis.)
2. Calculate the average speed of the washer with and without the parachute     using the data from the height.   Use the equation average speed (m/s) = distance/time to calculate average speed.
3. Key Concept How did friction affect the speed of the parachute and the washer
Why does the baseball player in Figure 3 slow down as he slides toward the base?Friction is contact force that resists the sliding motion between two objects that aretouchingThe force of friction acts in the opposite direction of the motionas shown bythe blue arrowRougher surfaces produce greater friction than smooth surfaces.Other factorssuch as the weight of an objectalso affect the force of friction.

David Madison/Getty Images
Figure 3 The player must overcome friction or he wonreach the base.
Is there anywhere on Earth where you could drop pencil and not have it fallNo!Gravity is noncontact attractive force that exists between all objects that have mass.
Mass is the amount of matter in an objectBoth your pencil and Earth have mass.They exert gravitational pull on each otherIn factthey exert the same gravitational force on each otherWhy doesnyour pencil pull Earth toward itIt actually doesThe pencil has very little massso the force of gravity causes it to rapidly accelerate downward toward EarthsurfaceEarth “falls” upward toward the pencil at the sametimebut because of its massEarthmotion is too small to see.
Distance and Gravity
You may have heard that astronauts become weightless in spaceThis is not true.Astronauts do have some weight in spacebut it is much less in space than theirweight on EarthWeight is measure of the force of gravity acting on an objectAstwo objects get farther apartthe gravitational force between the objects decreases.Figure 4 shows how the weight of an astronaut changes as he or she moves farther from Earth.
Figure 4 Gravitational force (weightdecreases as the distance between the centersof the objects increases.
You know that all objects exert force of gravity on all other objectsIf the astronaut drops hammer on the Moonwill it fall toward EarthNothe attraction between the Moon and the hammer is stronger than the attraction between Earth and the hammer because the hammer is very close to the Moon and very far from EarthThe hammer will fall down toward the Moon.
Mass and Gravity
Another factor that affects the force of gravity between two objects is the mass of the objectsAs the mass of one or both objects increasesthe gravitational force betweenthem increasesFor examplein Figure 5, F stands for the gravitational forceAs the figure showsdoubling the mass of one of the objects doubles the force of attraction.
The effect of mass on the force of gravity is most noticeable when one object is very massivesuch as planetand the other object has much less masssuch as personEven though the force of gravity acts equally on both objectsthe less massive object accelerates more quickly due to its smaller massBecause the plane accelerates so slowlyall you observe is the object with less mass “falling” toward the object with greater mass.
1. Key Concept CheckWhat factors affect the way gravity acts on objects?
Figure 5 The force of attraction between the bottom two objects is twice as much asbetween the top two objects.
Visual CheckDescribe the acceleration of the bottom spheres due to thegravitational force between them.
from Latin gravitaremeans to unitejoin together
Combining Forces
Have you ever played tug-of-warIf you alone pull against teamyou will probablybe pulled over the lineHoweverif you are on teamyour team might pull the ropehard enough to cause the other team to move in your directionWhen several forces act on an objectthe forces combine to act as single forceThe sum of the forces acting on an object is called the net force.
Forces in the Same Direction
When different forces act on an object in the same directionyou can find the net force by adding the forces togetherIn Figure 6, each team member pulls in the samedirectionThe net force on the rope is 110 N + 90 N + 100 N = 300 N.
Figure 6 Forces in the same direction act as single force.
Visual CheckWhat would the total force be if the person on the right stopped pulling?
Forces in Opposite Directions
When forces act in opposite directionsyou must include the direction of the forcewhen you add themLike numbers on number lineforces in the direction to the right are normally considered to be positive valuesForces to the left are negative values.In the first panel of Figure 7, the team on the right pulls with force of 300 NThe team on the left pulls with force of −300 NThe net force is 300 N + (−300 N) = 0.
Figure 7 No change in motion takes place when forces on an object are balanced.Unbalanced forces cause the team on the right to accelerate to the left.
Balanced and Unbalanced Forces
The net force on the rope in the top of Figure 7 is 0When the net force on an objectis Nthe forces acting on it are balanced forces. If the forces acting on an objectare balancedthe objectmotion does not changeWhen the net force acting on an object is not 0the forces acting on the object are unbalanced forces.

The forces acting on the rope in the bottom of Figure 7 are unbalanced
Unbalanced forces cause objects to change their motionor accelerate.
1. Key Concept CheckHow do balanced and unbalanced forces differ?
Lesson Review
Visual Summary
Forces are pushes and pulls exerted by objects on each otherContact forces occur when objects are touchingNoncontact forces act from distance.

Gravity is force of attraction between two objectsThe amount of gravitational force depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them.
Balanced forces do not affect motionUnbalanced forces change motion.
Lesson Assessment
Use Vocabulary
1. Describe friction in your own words.
2. Two examples of __________ are gravity and magnetism.

Understand Key Concepts
3. As the distance between two objects increasesthe gravitational force between    the objects
      A. increases.
      B. decreases.
      C. creates friction.
      D. stays the same.
4. Describe the forces acting on cyclist who is slowing down as he or she     climbs hill.
5. Identify any balanced and unbalanced forces acting on book resting on table.

Use the figure below to answer question 6.
6. What is the net force on the object?
      A. 30 to the right
      B. 30 to the left
      C. 60 to the right
      D. 90 to the left
7. Which is contact force?
      A. girl pulls the plug of an electric hair dryer from the socket.
      B. leaf falls to the ground because of Earthgravitational force.
      C. magnet pulls on nail cm away.
      D. small bit of paper is pulled toward an electrically charged comb.
Interpret Graphics
8. Copy and complete the graphic organizer to explain how distance and mass    affect the force of gravity.

Illustration of a graphic organizer labeled gravitational force
9. Analyze the four forces acting on the airplane flying at an altitude of 3,000 mas    shown below
do the forces affect the planemotion?
Illustration of an airplane in the sky. An arrow above the airplane is pointing up and labeled Lift; an arrow in front of the airplane (at the nose) is poiting to the right and is labeled Thrust; an arrown below the airplane is pointing down and labeled Gravity; and an arrow behind the airplane (at the tail) is pointint to the left and labeled Drag.
Critical Thinking
10. Construct diagram that shows three forces acting on an object in the samedirection and two forces acting in the opposite directionGive the forces values that would cause no change in motion.
11. Contrast the force of gravity between these pairs of objects     
1-kg mass and 2-kg mass that are 1 apart      a 1-kg mass and 2- kg mass that are apart      two 2-kg masses that are apart.
12. Give an example of contact force and noncontact force that affect plants.
13. While carrying heavy box up the stairsyou set the box on step and rest     Then you pick up the box and carry it to the top of the stairsDescribe these       actions in terms of balanced and unbalanced forces acting on the box.