Sunday, February 21, 2016

The Human Body Movement and Structure

Homeostasis and the Human Body
Click here for today's work Link
Use your Human Body Booklet and the website to
complete page 2 & 3 in your booklet

Organization of Living Things

Types of Tissue

Organ Research Reference
The normal liver contains typical connective tissue.

Eyes contain 2 types of tissue

The Heart
The heart has muscle tissue and connective tissue

The Brain
What kind of tissue is the brain made out of?

Next week...
Human Body Systems
The Incredible Human Machine Video
Structure and Movement
Class PowerPoint    Muscles Lab    The Muscular System Video      The Bone Song    Musculoskeletal System Video   Kidport - Muscles 
Learn More about Muscles Here 
Muscles, Muscles, More    Muscles       Human Body Systems Study   Incredible Human Machine Worksheet

The Muscular System works with the Skeletal System

to form the 
Musculo-skeletal System.

The muscular system moves the body.
The body has over 600 muscles.
Muscle: an organ that relaxes and contracts to allow movement.
In this lessonyou will read more about two organ systemsthe skeletal system and the muscular systemthat give the body structurehelp the body moveand protect other organ systems.
Functions of the Skeletal System                           Function of Muscles
1. movement                                                               1. to produce movement
2. protection                                                                2. to maintain posture 
3. structure                                                                  3. generate heat
4. storage of minerals

5. blood cell production

The Skeletal System
The skeletal system has four major jobs.
It protects internal organsprovides supporthelps the body moveand stores minerals. The skeletal system is mostly bonesAdults have 206 bonesLigamentstendonsand cartilage are also parts of the skeletal system.
Storage The skeletal system is also an important storage site for minerals such as calciumCalcium is essential for lifeIt has many functions in the bodyMuscles require calcium for contractionsThe nervous system requires calcium for communicationMost of the calcium in the body is stored in boneCalcium helps build stronger compact bone.Cheese and milk are good sources of calcium.
1. Reading CheckWhat mineral is stored by the skeletal system?
Support Without skeletonyour body would look like beanbagYour skeleton gives your body structure and supportYour bones help you standsit up,and raise your arms to play an instrumentsuch as trumpet.
Protection Many of the bones in the body protect organs that are made of softer tissue.For examplethe skull protects the soft tissue of the brainand the rib cage protects the soft tissue of the lungs and heart.
Movement The skeletal system helps the body move by working with the muscular system. Bones can move because they are attached to muscles. You will read more about
the interaction of the skeletal system and the muscular system later in this lesson.

Bone Types
Bones are organs that contain two types of tissue.
Compact bone is the hard outer layer of bone.
Spongy bone is the interior region of bone that contains many tiny holes. Spongy bone is inside compact bone.
Some bones also contain bone marrow. 

marrow is part of the lymphatic system and makes white blood cells.
2. Reading CheckHow do the two types of bone tissue differ?

Figure 1 Bone is made up of densehard exterior and spongy interior.
Bones Connect in several ways!

Muscular System
Types of muscles. 
Skeletal muscles are involved in bodily locomotion.
Smooth muscles are involved in digestion
Cardiac muscles are involved within the heart

Over all, the muscles are always involved in moving something. 
Muscle Movements 
Involuntary - Automatically move without you knowing.
Voluntary- Brain sends message to muscle.  You control the movements

Three types of muscle tissue
Skeletal muscles involve moving the body. They are voluntary muscles.
Cardiac muscles involve moving blood. They are involuntary muscles.
Smooth muscles are involved with moving material in the bowels. They are involuntary muscles.
These muscles have distinctive attributes. 
Skeletal muscles are attached to bone with tendons. They are striated, they appear in layers. Skeletal muscle works with the skeletal system and helps you moveTendons connect skeletal muscles to bonesSkeletal muscle also gives you the strength to lift heavy objectsSkeletal muscles are also called voluntary muscles,which are muscles that you can consciously control.
Smooth muscles act together with other smooth muscles to coordinate the movement of stuff through the bowels. Smooth muscles are not striated, they are thin and line various organs. 
Smooth muscle tissue moves materials through your body. Smooth muscle tissue is in organs such as the stomach and the bladder. Blood vessels also have smooth muscle tissue.
Cardiac muscles are in the heart, The heart is an organ that is made of smooth muscle tissue specifically cardiac muscle tissue. Cardiac muscle is only in the heart. It continually contracts and relaxes and moves blood throughout your body.

Muscle tissue is a specialized tissue that can contract. 


As fascinating as they are, muscles alone can't do the job. At every joint, tendons and ligaments also help out. Muscles wouldn't be very useful alone because they don't directly connect to the bone, so even if they contract, they wouldn't be moving anything. Instead, muscles are connected to tendons, when themselves are connected to the bones. When the muscles contract, they pull on the tendons, which in turn pull on the muscles, and that causes movement.

But without ligaments, that movement wouldn't be too useful because it would not be directed movement. Without ligaments, instead of bones bending or rotating about each other when muscles contract, they would slide by each other. Ligaments are what hold the bones together

When tendons and ligaments are pulled beyond their normal range, a sprain occurs.

Tendons connect muscle to bone.
Ligaments connect bone to bone.

Cartilage acts as a shock absorber between bones.

Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. It is not as hard and rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.

Energy changes when your muscles contract...

Eating food supplies your cells with the necessary nutrients to perform and create ATP or energy. 

This is a chemical reaction, turning food into energy...(remember cellular respiration?)
The muscles then use the energy or ATP to move, this is mechanical energy

Also the muscles create HEAT when they move ....This is thermal energy

The muscular system contributes to approximately 40% 
of the body’s overall weight (an average sized individual.)

Myology is the study of muscles

How do the muscles help your body maintain its temperature?
Muscles play a significant role in the body’s ability to maintain a constant temperature regardless of the temperature which surrounds it. Metabolism, which is the process of turning food into energy, releases heat, which in turn helps to maintain a regulated body temperature. 

Muscles, which comprise approximately 40% of the body’s weight, carry enough impact on the human body based solely on their mass to be the prime source of the body’s ability to heat itself and maintain a steady constant temperature. The state of chronic muscle fiber activity maintains body temperature and the state of strenuous muscular activity increases body temperature, encouraging the human body to produce sweat to cool the temperature.

The human body can move in many different directions and perform wide variety of tasksIt is able to do things that require many parts of the body to movesuch as shooting basketball into hoop or swimming lap in poolThe human body also can remain very stillsuch as when posing for picture or balancing on one leg.

You might already know that there are muscle cells in your arms and legsBut did youknow that there are muscle cells in your eyesheartand blood vessels?Without muscle cells you would not be able to talkwriteor run
Muscle cells are everywhere in the bodyAlmost1/2 of your body mass is muscle cellsThese muscle cells make up the muscularsystemBy working togetherthey help the body move.

3. Key Concept CheckWhat systems help the body move?

(l, t and b) Dr. Gladden Willis/Visuals Unlimited/Getty Images, (r) Innerspace Imaging/Photo Researchers
Figure 2 Cardiac muscle is only in the heartOrganssuch as the stomachhave smooth muscleSkeletal muscle moves your body.
Visual CheckWhich type of muscle is in your arms?

Lesson Summary
1. . Which is NOT a type of muscle tissue?
2. Which is a part of the skeletal system?

3. Summarize Copy and fill in the graphic organizer below to show the three types of
    muscle tissue. Example of a graphic organizer with the center oval labelend Muscular System and three blank ovals branching off below it

4. Predict the effect of having less compact bone than normal on the strength of the
    skeletal system by examining the figure below. 
Distinguish between compact bone
    and spongy bone.

Illustration of a cross-section of human bone

Thank you and Have a good day!